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United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), which has its headquarters in Nairobi, was founded in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, UNCHE. UNEP is the only United Nations body focussed exclusively on the environment. In accordance with its mandate, UNEP is "the leading global environmental authority", coordinates United Nations environmental activities, produces comprehensive reports on the state of the environment worldwide, develops political and legal instruments for international environmental protection and offers consulting services to interested countries. Achim Steiner has been UNEP Executive Director since 2006, when he succeeded Klaus Töpfer, Germany's former Environment Minister. Former Norwegian Minister of the Environment and International Development, Erik Solheim, will be taking over as Executive Director from 15 June 2016.

At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012, the role of UNEP as the voice of the environment within the United Nations system was strengthened. In the Rio+20 Outcome Document (external PDF, 255 KB) the following reforms were set out for UNEP:

  • universal membership instead of 58 member states;
  • increased share of the regular budget of the United Nations and increased voluntary contributions from the member countries for UNEP;
  • strengthening and expanding UNEP's leading role in the formulation of United Nations system-wide strategies on the environment;
  • ensuring the active participation of all stakeholders drawing especially from civil society and
  • strengthening the headquarters in Nairobi.

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UNEP structure and bodies

UNEP has an Executive Office, a leadership level and the following five main divisions:

  1. Early Warning and Assessment, DEWA
  2. Environmental Policy Implementation, DEPI
  3. Technology, Industry and Economics, DTIE
  4. Environmental Law and Conventions, DELC
  5. Communications and Public Information, DCPI

UNEP also has six regional offices for Africa, Asia and Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, and West Asia, which ensure close cooperation with these regions.

The main decision-making body, pursuant to a UNEP Governing Council decision of February 2013 (external PDF, 474 KB), is the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) in which all UN member nations are represented. The decisions of UNEA are prepared by the Committee of Permanent Representatives, a subsidiary body.

Beginning in June 2014, the United Nations Environment Assembly meets every two years. This year's meeting from 23 to 27 May 2016 focusses on "Delivering on the Environmental Dimension of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development".

UNEA replaces the UNEP Governing Council (a 58-member body founded in 1972) and the former Global Ministerial Environmental Forum, a high-level part of the Governing Council, which from 1999, met in parallel with the Governing Council sessions.

The United Nations Environment Assembly is the central governing body of UNEP and its decisions set the priorities for UNEP's work. It also sets priorities for global environmental policy, advises the UN system on environmental policy issues, provides recommendations on new environmental challenges, examines existing practices, encourages the exchange of experience, organises dialogues with civil society groups and promotes partnerships that pursue environmental objectives and mobilise resources.

The Committee of Permanent Representatives (CPR) (external PDF, 681 KB), which meets four times a year, is a permanent subsidiary body of UNEA comprising representatives from countries accredited in Nairobi, who monitor the work of UNEP between UNEA sessions, advise UNEA and stimulate programme-related discussions. As it communicates directly with UNEP, the CPR is an important connection between UNEP and national governments. An expanded CPR with representatives from the capitals and civil society groups holds a preparatory meeting every two years in the run-up to UNEA session. The last meeting was held in February 2016.

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UNEP strategies

The basis for UNEP activities is the Medium-Term Strategy (external PDF, 2,7 MB), which always covers a period of four years and sets out priorities and goals with indicators and expected results. From this strategy document, a detailed two year Strategic Framework (external PDF, 2,6 MB) is drawn up, which sets out priorities for the seven thematic areas (Climate Change, Disasters and Conflicts, Ecosystem Management, Environmental Governance, Chemicals and Waste, Resource Efficiency and Environment under Review) as well as a strategy taking external factors into account. The two-year Programme of Work (external PDF, 1,0 MB) is based on the Strategic Framework and outlines expected output, which is measured using indicators. For each of the thematic areas a budget and staff contingent is specified.

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Financing

UNEP's budget is made up of three elements: the Environment Fund, trust funds, and funds provided to UNEP from the UN's regular budget. Parallel to the two-year programme of work, UNEP budget is set out for a two-year period. The total UNEP budget for 2014 and 2015 together was 619 million US dollars.

The UNEP core budget is the Environment Fund, which comes from voluntary contributions made by the member states. For the 2014-2015 period this was around 245 million US dollars. For many years, Germany has been one of the largest contributors to the Environment Fund. Germany contributed approximately 14.8 million euros (annual payment of around 7.4 million euros) to the UNEP budget for the 2014-2015 period. A contribution of 7.4 million euros has been earmarked accordingly for 2016.

UNEP's share of the UN regular budget was increased at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012. For the 2014-2015 period this share was 35 million US dollars and for 2016-2017 is expected to also be 35 million US dollars.

UNEP receives the largest share from the trust funds and earmarked contributions. These funds in part support UNEP's work, but the largest share goes towards UNEP managed environmental agreements, protocols and regional programmes. A total of 202 million US dollars were contributed for the 2014-2015 period. Germany makes annual contributions here as well. For 2016, an estimated 8 million euros have been allocated for this from the Federal Environment Ministry's budget alone.

Further contributions come from, among others, the Global Environment Facility and other global funds.

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Last update: 20.05.2016